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Overview of new texts

The updates made in 2021 include (which now brings together the former LLT-A and LLT-B): 169 new works added to the database; two texts made available from a more recent edition; the textual corpus of four dossiers augmented; and one dossier, already available in the 2020 version of the LLT-A, now split into two parts. As of December 2021, the LLT contains an additional 6.57 million new words compared to the 2020 versions of the LLT-A and LLT-B. Consequently, the LLT now contains a total of over 147.81 million words. The current version of the LLT allows scholars to consult 11,415 works (among which 5,804 are diplomatic charters).

We start our presentation of the new texts with those from the Patristic Period. The major input for this period has been provided by new editions from the Series Latina of the Corpus Christianorum. Thus, we have integrated the new critical edition of Bachiarius’ opera omnia, an edition that offers ‘a new starting point on completely renewed bases for the study of the author and of Priscillianism at the end of Late Antiquity’ (J.-C. Martín-Iglesias).

To the works of Braulio of Zaragoza we have added the Confessio uel professio Iudaeorum ciuitatis Toletanae and, more importantly, the new edition of the bishop’s Epistularium, which also contains the letters addressed to Braulio by the abbot Aemilianus, by the bishops Fructuosus of Braga, by Taio of Zaragoza and Isidore of Seville, and by the Visigothic kings Chindaswinth and Recceswinth. The letters by Braulio that are usually placed in front of Isidore’s Etymologiae are presented as a separate dossier. We can mention that the full corpus of Isidore’s letters has been completed, now including the letters by Isidore, those addressed to Isidore, and the dubia and the spuria. Note that for the letter sent by Eugene of Toledo to Braulio, we have kept the edition by P. F. Alberto (SL 114, 2005), that was introduced into the database in 2007.

In 2015, we started incorporating the corpus of papal letters from Late Antiquity, Hormisdas’ correspondence being the first part of this endeavour. In the current update, we have continued this enterprise by processing the first parts of the epistolary corpus of pope Gelasius I (d. 469).

As for the great commentary of Jerome on the prophet Isaiah, we have replaced the edition published by M. Adriaen for the Series Latina of the Corpus Christianorum with the new critical edition prepared by Mgr Gryson and his collaborators for the collection Vetus Latina. Aus der Geschichte der lateinischen Bibel. The corpus of translations of Origen has been enlarged with the Homilies on Saint Luke, which were rendered in Latin by Jerome; the translation integrated is based on the text edited by Max Rauer for the Corpus Berolinense.

The dossier of Augustine’s Sermones ad populum has been updated. It now includes the second part of the Sermones in Matthaeum published in the Series Latina under the direction of Luc De Coninck and Bertrand Coppieters ’t Wallant. We aim to keep this important dossier up-to-date through continuous additions and modifications. Apart from the new text of sermons 71 to 94, we have also incorporated a series of other sermons edited by C. Weidmann, B. M. Jensen, F. Dolbeau, Dom Bogaert, and J. Delmulle.

As for Theodorus Priscianus, a physician and medical author from Late Antiquity, we have integrated his writings as published in 1894 by Valentin Rose. This corpus includes not only the texts considered authentic, like the Euporiston libri and the fragments of the Physica, but also the texts falsely attributed to him, like the De simplici medicina liber and the De uesicae uitiis.

Mozarabic literature composed in Latin constitutes an important part of the Latin heritage of Spain. We have integrated into the database the works collected in the Corpus Scriptorum Muzarabicorum, recently published in a new edition by Juan Gil. The corpus includes 39 dossiers composed by a multitude of authors, such as: Paul Albar of Córdoba (c. 800–861), Elipandus, the archbishop of Toledo (d. after 799), Eulogius of Córdoba (c. 800–859), and Samson of Córdoba (d. 890).

The old edition of the Commentary on the Apocalypse by Caesarius of Arles, established by Dom Germain Morin in 1942, has been replaced by the new critical edition, which Msgr. Roger Gryson published in 2019 in the Series Latina of the Corpus Christianorum.

The journal Sacris Erudiri, well-known among theologians and historians, regularly publishes Latin texts that either have not been critically edited or that would otherwise require the production of a new edition and in-depth study. In 2021, we have introduced the texts published in volume 59 of this journal. From the Patristic Period, we have added the new edition of the Epistula ecclesiae Smyrnensis de passione s. Polycarpi (i.e. the Latin translation of the Martyrium Polycarpi), published by B. Gleede. This edition replaces the older one by Th. Zahn that can be found in the second fascicle of the Patrum Apostolicorum opera from 1876. We have also incorporated the Passio sancti Seneri (Passio Sereni Sirmiensis), edited by H. Tamas. This new edition tries to clarify the problem related to the two versions of the passio that previous scholars considered to be two clearly distinct recensions, but that, according to the editor, are actually two reworked copies of an single older archetype.

With the third text from volume 59 of Sacris Erudiri, we move on to the Middle Ages. The corpus of Sermones uulgares uel ad status by Jacques de Vitry, from which J. Longère published sermons 1 to 36 in 2013, has now been expanded with sermons 73 and 74 (ad pueros et adolescentes), edited by R. Beyers.

As for the Patristic period, a significant part of the medieval texts have been integrated according to editions published in the Corpus Christianorum. The De sancto et immortali Deo is the opus magnum that Hugh Etherianus (c. 1110–1182) composed in Byzantium at the request of emperor Manuel I Komnenos. He aims to refute the Greek position according to which the Holy Spirit proceeds ex Patre solo. Next to this work, we have also inserted the author’s correspondence with pope Alexander III and Aimery of Limoges, the patriarch of Antioch, to whom Hugh sent this work. We have also added the Compendiosa expositio in libro de Spiritu sancto Hugonis Etheriani, an anonymous work which is a privileged witness to the functioning of applied exegesis in Hugh’s oeuvre.

We have completed the corpus of John Scottus (‘Eriugena’) by integrating the author’s poetic corpus, newly edited by M. W. Herren and A. Dunning for the Continuatio Mediaeualis in 2020. To this collection, we have added Scottus’ translation of the De opificio hominis by Gregory of Nyssa, according to the new edition by G. Mandolino, who has taken advantage of the Paris manuscript that, next to the Bamberg manuscript discovered and used by Dom M. Cappuyns, is the only witness containing the nearly complete text of the translation.

In his four opuscula de praedestinatione, Lupus of Ferrières (c. 805–after 862) gives an answer to the theological ideas put forward by Gottschalk of Orbais (c. 806–868/869), at the request of Hincmar, the archbishop of Reims, and of Charles the Bald. We have integrated into the database the text of the De tribus quaestionibus liber, the Collectaneum de tribus quaestionibus, the Epistula ad Hincmarum, and the Epistula ad Carolum regem, in accordance with the volume published by Jeremy Thompson in the Continuatio Mediaeualis.

The tractatus liturgici of Berno of Reichenau (c. 978–1048) are a collection of four treatises (the Qualiter Aduentus Domini celebrari debeat, the De obseruatione ieiunii quattuor temporum, the De quibusdam rebus ad missae officium pertinentibus libellus, and the De uaria psalmorum atque cantuum modulatione), to which the editor, Henry Parkes, adds the Ratio generalis de initio aduentus Domini, albeit without a formal attribution. The texts have been incorporated from volume 297 of the Continuatio Mediaeualis.

The Passionarium Hispanicum, edited by V. Yarza Urquiola, has been incorporated respecting the subdivisions adopted by the editor, who distinguished between the texts preserved in the tenth-century manuscripts, those preserved in the eleventh-century manuscripts, and an appendix containing the texts from a manuscript that dates back to the end of the twelfth or the beginning of the thirteenth century.

We have continued integrating into the database the works of Heymeric de Campo (c. 1395–1460), adding to his dossier the Centheologicon, edited by G. Bagnasco for the Continuatio Mediaeualis. The text in question is a theological treatise that explains the author’s theological conceptions in about a hundred chapters.

The text of the Speculum uniuersale written by Radulfus Ardens, a twelfth-century scholastic theologian and preacher, has been expanded upon by the addition of books VII to X. We hope soon to complete the text of this work, which ‘probably constitutes the best and the most voluminous presentation of ethics from the twelfth century’ (B. Geyer).

The old edition of the Anulus siue dialogus inter Christianum et Iudaeum, established in 1942 by Dom Rhaban Haake, has been replaced by the critical edition published in 2020 by Alessio Magoga in the Continuatio Mediaeualis of the Corpus Christianorum.

In 2020, with the inclusion of the Expositio in Pentateuchum, we started integrating into the database the works of Bruno of Segni (1045/1049–1123), who was also abbot of Montecassino for a number of years. In the current update, we have incorporated the Expositio in librum Iob, the Expositio in Psalmos, the Expositio de muliere forte, which is connected to the Expositio in Cantica, and the Expositio in Apocalypsim.

While performing updates in 2021, we have inserted into the database a number of texts published in the collection Sous la règle de saint Augustin (Brepols Publishers). The Commentarius Vercellensis in Canticum Canticorum (inc. ‘Deiformis animae gemitus’) was long considered to be the first of three commentaries composed by Thomas Gallus (c. 1200–1246). However, the edition integrated into the LLT presents it as an anonymous text from the second half of the thirteenth century.

The Memoriale historiarum of the canon regular John of Saint-Victor (fourteenth century), a vast universal chronicle, still awaits an editor. I. Guyot and D. Poirel have published the Tractatus de diuisione regnorum, a long preliminary text to the Memoriale, that contains a prologue and a description of regions and kingdoms. The editors have published the two recensions of the Tractatus that respectively introduce the two versions of the chronicle redacted between 1302 and (probably) 1326.

The works of Geoffrey of Saint-Victor were not widely available after the death of the author; the Microcosmus did not get an editio princeps until the edition by Ph. Delhaye in 1951. We have incorporated the text as published by F. Gasparri, whose edition reflects the last preserved redaction of the Microcosmus, thanks to a detailed analyses of two manuscripts, one of which is an autograph and the other of which was revised by the author himself.

In 2020, we incorporated into the LLT the two major treatises of Gerard Zerbolt of Zutphen, one of the figureheads of the Deuotio moderna. In 2021, we have integrated the Super modo uiuendi deuotorum hominum simul commorantium and the De libris teutonicalibus, the latter of which, among the author’s opuscules, has had the biggest impact because of its topic. The complete text of the expanded redaction has only recently been discovered in a Middle Dutch translation. We have added to the database the preserved parts of the two Latin redactions – the short version (‘Grundfassung’) and the expanded version (‘erweiterte Fassung’) – according to the text established by R. Suntrup and N. Staubach, who also edited the two Dutch translations.

The Congregation of Windesheim was founded by the disciples of Geert Groote in 1386. Thanks to the Constitutiones canonicorum Windeshemensium, we get an insight into the most primitive form of this congregation’s rule, established between 1392 and 1402. 

Various other works included in the current update deal with the Deuotio moderna. Notably, we have integrated the Tractatulus deuotus and the Epistula ad quendam regularem in Wyndesem by Florent Radewijns (c. 1350–1400), from the edition published in the collection Sous la règle de saint Augustin. Two important works by Johannes Busch (1399–1479/1480) offer a contemporaneous account of the history of the Windesheim Congregation and the monastic reforms that took place around the author’s time. These works are the Chronicon Windeshemense (composed of two parts: the Liber de uiris illustribus and the Liber de origine Deuotionis Modernae) and the Liber de reformatione monasteriorum.

We have long been working on integrating the works of the scholastic philosopher Henry of Ghent. In the current update of the LLT, we have augmented the text of the Summa by adding the articles XXXI up to LV.

We have also continued integrating the works of Denis the Carthusian. In this year’s update, we have incorporated the Dialogion de fide catholica, one of the Carthusian’s early works, as well as the Summa fidei orthodoxae (id est Medulla operum S. Thomae), which gives a resume of Thomas Aquinas’ doctrine, and the Commentarii on the four books of Peter Lombard’s Sentences. Following the text of the opera omnia, we have also added different letters to the database that accompany the works of Denis in their sixteenth-century editions.

In the realm of scholastic literature, we have also inserted the Quaestiones ordinariae and the Quodlibeta by Godfrey of Fontaines, published between 1914 and 1937 by Maurice De Wulf, Jean Hoffmans and Dom Odon Lottin in the Philosophes Belges collection.

The Summa de sacramentis et animae consiliis by Peter Cantor is also part of scholastic literature. We have incorporated the text of the editio princeps published by Jean-Albert Dugauquier in the Analecta Mediaevalia Namurcensia, respecting the division of the work into three parts, as proposed by the editor.

Just as in the previous updates, we have continued to expand upon the corpus of the English reformer John Wycliffe. This year, we have inserted the four books of his Opus euangelicum (the last two books of which are also known under the title De Antichristo libri). This work’s tone is, in a sharp and repetitive manner, anti-papal and anti-mendicant.

Two translations of John Damascene’s De fide orthodoxa (one of which is only a partial translation) have been available in the database since 2015. During the updates of 2021, we also integrated the Dialectica in its translation by Robert Grossesteste. We have followed the text as published by Owen A. Colligan for the Franciscan Institute Publications.

After the Decretalium Gregorii Papae IX compilatio, which has been available for consultation since 2020, we have also incorporated the Liber sextus decretalium, compiled at the instigation of Boniface VIII and promulgated in 1298. The Liber sextus became the second major collection of canon law of the central Middle Ages, after the Decretum Gratiani (composed around the middle of the twelfth century). We have integrated the text published in 1879 by E. Friedberg.

The Micrologus, composed by Bernold of Constance (c. 1054–1100), is a liturgical manual that originates from the turbulent period of the Gregorian reform. In it, Bernold describes the Mass and the Office according to the Roman Rite. We have integrated the text from Migne’s Patrologia.

We have continued inserting the texts published by Msgr. Andrieu in his collection of Ordines Romani. In the current update, we have incorporated the Ordo Romanus XVI (‘Instructio ecclesiastici ordinis’), written by a Frankish monk around the third quarter of the eighth century, which aims to provide monks living under the Rule of Saint Benedict with a directory in accordance with Roman traditions for the whole of the annual liturgical cycle.

The corpus of Cistercian literature has been expanded with the commentaries on the Song of Songs by Thomas the Cistercian (also known as Thomas of Perseigne, died c. 1190) and John Halgren (c. 1180–1237), which were put together in one work by their first editor, Josse Badius (1461/1462–1535), in 1521. We have integrated into the database Badius’ text as reprinted in Migne’s Patrologia.

The works of Alan of Auxerre (died c. 1185) are also part of the Cistercian corpus. They consist of letters, diplomata, the author’s testament, and a life of Saint Bernard. We have incorporated the text of Migne’s Patrologia.

The historical epic De excidio ciuitatis Leodiensis libri sex essentially recounts the capture and destruction of the city of Liège in the autumn of 1468 by the troops of the French king Louis XI and the duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold. It was composed by the Italian humanist Angelus Sabinus in the second half of the sixteenth century. The Maastricht humanist Matthieu Herben, who, as he says himself, had helped Sabinus, published the poem in the early 1500s. We have integrated the text as it was printed in 1729 by E. Martène and U. Durand in volume IV of their Veterum scriptorum et monumentorum amplissima collectio, the only complete edition of the poem to date.

The Liber de Aseneth recounts an episode in the life of Joseph, son of Jacob, which is not transmitted by the book of Genesis. It was certainly written in Greek between the first century BC and the beginning of the second century AD, probably in Egypt by an unknown Jewish author. There are two medieval Latin translations. We have inserted the text of the first translation, edited in 1890 by Pierre Batiffol.

The Ars poetica that we have integrated into the database, and whose exact title is probably Ars versificatoria, was written by Gervase of Melkley (c. 1185–after 1219), a mostly unknown author. The work ‘offers the most complete and differentiated theory of linguistic expression among the Artes et Poetriae of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries’ (Franz Josef Worstbrock). We have incorporated the text of the editio princeps published by Hans-Jürgen Gräbener, taking into account the numerous corrigenda proposed by Worstbrock.

As for the Recentior Latinitas, we can point out one particularly important text of Protestant hermeneutics. The theologian Matthias Flacius Illyricus (1520–1575), an avid admirer of Luther, composed the Clauis Scripturae Sacrae seu De sermone Sacrarum Literarum in order to specify Protestant exegesis in a concrete manner, based on the Lutheran principle of the ‘Scriptura sui ipsius interpres’. In 2019, we already integrated the second part of this work, the altera pars, which offers ‘numerous general rules de sermone sacrarum literarum’. The 2021 updates have seen the completion of the integration of the prima pars, the insertion of which was begun in 2020. Thus, the entire Clauis can now be consulted in the LLT. The pars prima explains in alphabetical order the use and meaning of a large number of words and expressions of the Holy Scripture. For the database version of this text, we have used a thoroughly revised version of the text encoded by the Croatiae Auctores Latini project (CroALa) of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb.

We have also continued the inclusion of the Latin writings of Martin Luther. In addition to texts related to various disputationes, we have integrated into the database: first, the Formula missae et communionis pro ecclesia Wittembergensi of 1523, which marks an important step in Luther’s path towards reforming worship; second, the De instituendis ecclesiae, the most thoughtful theological reflection that Luther composed on his doctrine of universal priesthood and on the ministries of the Protestant Church; and finally, the Ad librum eximii magistri nostri magistri Ambrosii Catharini defensoris Silvestri Prieratis acerrimi responsio Martini Lutheri, which allows the author to draw up a general settlement of accounts with the anti-Christian papacy.

Continuing our overview of the updates in the field of the Recentior Latinitas, we have also inserted the Anti-Lucretius siue de Deo et Natura by Melchior de Polignac (1661-1741), in which the author gives a refutation of Lucretius’ Epicurean philosophy. We have introduced into the database the text of the first, posthumous edition published in 1747.

Descartes’ major works have long been available for consultation in our database. We have completed this corpus with the Obiectiones doctorum aliquot uirorum in ‘Meditationes’ cum responsionibus authoris, which couples the Meditationes de prima philosophia with seven series of objections addressed to Descartes by various theologians and philosophers, as well as the author’s answers to these objections. We have also included various texts by Descartes that pertain to the so-called ‘quarrel of Utrecht’, which pitted the French philosopher mainly against Gisbertus Voetius, his adversary at the University of Utrecht.

Two remarkable Latin texts written in the twentieth century are now included in the LLT. The first of these is the Saniucta, published by Ippolito Galante in 1957, which ‘will most probably forever remain the last epic poem written in Latin’ (J. IJsewijn and D. Sacré). The other one is the Vallum Berolinense, Menippea by Harry C. Schnur (‘C. Arrius Nurus’), who is considered one of the most important Neo-Latin authors of the twentieth century. In this text, the author describes his impressions of the construction of the Berlin Wall, which he had the opportunity to observe as an eyewitness.

For more details about this update of the LLT (that gives a single access to the two parts of the Library of Latin Texts), we invite our users to consult the lists of authors and titles in the “About” section of the database application (“New titles 2021” and “All titles”).